The History of Meat Pies and My Inspired 14th Century Chicken, Bacon, and Fennel Pie
I know you are probably thinking… what history or interest is there in a meat pie? The answer may surprise you.
Meat pies, often associated today with traditional British fair, date to the dawn of time. All the early civilizations consumed meat pies; the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Each culture would change and adapt meat pies with their customs, cooking techniques, and available resources. The fat, a key ingredient in cooking and pastry making, was mainly olive oil, as the olive grows in abundance in warmer southern climates. Ancient cultures would use available tools to grind grains into a fine powder to produce flour for pastries that may or may not have been edible. A tablet dating back to the Sumerian period (2000 bc) depicted a version of a chicken pie. The Egyptians ate meat pies that resembled a French galette, which often included nuts, honey, and fruit into a dough (think bread-like dough). Images of the Egyptian pies were located on Ramses III's (1186 to 1155 BC) tomb walls. These loose forms of pastry dishes were also adapted for Egyptian sailors to provide nourishment on their long trips. The pastry was hard and could last throughout their voyage. This pastry concept continued for centuries, most notably how the English Pilgrims survived the long journey across the North Atlantic to America (pastry was called Hardtack). Greeks would wrap the meat with flour and water paste, preserving the juices within the crust during the cooking process. The plays of Aristophanes (5th century BC) hint at fruit pastries; however, the favored sweet fruit pies dId not become popular until the 16th century in America. The Romans, influenced by the Greeks, preferred their meat pies, secundae mensea, to be sweeter. The sweet dish appears in the ancient Roman agricultural book De Agricultura, written by Cato the Elder. The pastry was not always consumed; instead, it was used as a container that prevented food from drying out.
The name "pie" did not even appear until the 14th century (or as they called it in medieval times, “pye”), and it is believed to be about the Eurasian bird, magpies (maggie pie/mag pie) which collects assorted items for their round nests. Though the word "pye" was first used in 1303, it did not become famous for another 60 years.
Meat pies are commonplace in medieval cooking but not always for eating. It would depend on the consumer class and the event being held or celebrated. The lower class would eat every bite of the pie, including the crust, which was often not appetizing. The pastry was meant as a vessel for cooking and transporting rather than a delicious flaky part of the pie. The thick pie crust was called a “coffin” and would take hours to cook in large clay pots or hearthstones. In fact, the word coffin is used for this type of food preparation before it is used as a burial vessel. The hard pastry would seal the contents from the open air and preserve the food for a long time, despite not having refrigeration. The thick, uneaten crust would also be crushed and reused as a thickener. Unlike the warmer climates of early civilizations where olives grew, colder climates used suet, lard, or butter as fat and filled the shells with meat such as beef, lamb, duck, pigeon, spices, currants, or dates. The choice of fillings would also depend on the classes. Lower classes would use root vegetables, pork, or poorer cuts of meat, while the upper classes would use more expensive meats that were often hunted on their estates.
The upper class would rarely eat the pastry and, in some cases, not even the pie. The dish would become an item of entertainment and amazement. During Charles V's (1364-1380) reign in France, his chefs would turn pies into what was referred to as a “soteltie” or “subtilty.” The Sotelites were pies turned into elaborate sculptures meant to disguise the food to look like something else. Though the diners could have nibbled on these food sculptures, they were more like an act or a distraction until the next course was available. The nursery rhyme “Sing a Song of Sixpence” gives a glimmer into these events. The lyrics include “four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie.” Well, the chefs did not bake 24 live blackbirds in a pie; instead, live birds were placed into the hard pastry to entertain guests. The crust was cut open in front of the diners, and the birds would fly out of the pie in song (otherwise known as screaming and running for their lives). The birds were not the only victim of these encasements. For an event for King Charles I and his wife, the “court dwarf” Jeffrey Hudson was dressed as a knight and popped out of the pie as it was presented to the King and his Queen. The Duke of Burgundy, in 1454, reportedly encased 24 musicians and instruments in a pie crust for the Feast of the Pheasant. Think about that for a moment.
You can see why pies were at almost every dinner table and feast; not only was the food preserved, but it also came with its cooking vessel. Recipes at the time were captured mainly by chefs of the Royal and other High Brow families, so we can mostly only get a glimpse of what they were eating, which was the more expensive meats, ingredients, and elaborate displays. In the cooking manuscripts captured at the time (for example, Richard II/A Forme of Cury), countless “pyes” are listed, including duck, pigeon, chicken, pork, beef, and veal, along with the bold spices that entered Europe at the time through the spice trade. In addition to the Royals' grand scale, hand pies are also valued by travelers and the working class. Hand pies were an easy way to contain food in a form suitable for a person who will spend long days walking by horse or foot.
By 1620, when the “Strangers and Saints“ set sail for America on the Mayflower, the recipes and techniques for pies went with them. Pastries would tend to be challenging to eat initially; even Thomas Jefferson continued to refer to pie shells as coffins; however, by introducing wheat flour and lard to the home cook, the dough became lighter and edible. Every part of the new country was adopting and adapting pies to their cultures and customs. The south would make sweet potato pies, the northeast would gather the abundance of wild-grown blueberries and strawberries for their sweet pies, while the pioneers of the west would make pies into whatever they could get their hands on in the 1700s. Pioneer women knew that by forming food in this fashion, the evening’s dinner could handle the diverse temperatures of whatever cooking element they had available. Even the first American President had a favorite, George Washington enjoyed his wife’s Sweetbread pie in his Mount Vernon, Virginia home (as noted in the Martha Washington Historic Cookbook).
With the introduction of sugar in America, most meat pies phased out of popularity to the sweet pies that are often lovingly served at family dinners, state fairs, and holidays. However, meat pies continue to be commonplace in Great Britain, and of course, the Cornish pastie is one of the most well-known (and one of my favorites). The savory handheld meat pie with its distinctive Cornish pastry dough was a favorite among the minors and working class, and today it is protected. The Cornish pastie was granted PGI (protected geographical indication) in Europe in 2011, which means you cannot call a dish “Cornish pasties” if it is not made in Cornwall, England. The hand pie continues in other cultures, considering the turnover, empanadas, and calzone—anything that is easy to transport and consume, made with local flavors and customs.
The inspiration for this dish comes from a 14 century-German recipe called King Chicken. Though I cannot verify that this dish was made for the King, the name would certainly give you the impression it was. The original dish is grilled chicken chopped up into bite sizes, combined with eggs, ground ginger, anise, and saffron, and then baked in a shell. This recipe, or concept, spread around Europe, making its way into England. By 1747 English cookbook author Hannah Glasse cookbooks before and after her made their version of chicken and egg pie.
Take young grilled chickens; chop them up into little bite-sized pieces. Take fresh eggs, break them, mix them with ground ginger and a little anise, and pour this into a solid mortar, which should be hot. Sprinkle the chickens with the same spices you add to the eggs. Put the chickens into a mortar, add saffron, and salt to taste, and keep them by the fire. Let them bake at an even temperature with some lard, and serve them whole. They are called king's chicken. Source [Daz buoch von guoter spise, Germany 14C